THE DARK AGES 113 instruction to the knowledge required for the understanding of the Church services. Against that view is the fact that all later schools of the kind were grammar schools; and that, moreover, it was a grammar school which was required. This was a school, not for the future clergy—though they would attend it—but for the better-class English children. The English people, it must be remembered, were in a different position from that of their Con- tinental neighbours, in that they were totally ignorant of the Latin tongue in which all the Church services were conducted. " The missionaries had to come with the Latin service-book in one hand and the Latin grammar in the other. Not only had the native priests to be taught the tongue in which their services were per- formed, but their converts, at least of the upper classes, had to be taught the elements of grammar before they could grasp the elements of religion. So the grammar school became in theory, as it often was in fact, the necessary ante-room, the vestibule of the church. But as there were no schools any more than there were churches in England, Augustine had to create both."* And in doing so he presumably took as his model the ordinary grammar schools which still existed, though in decadence, in Italy. Another passage in Bede^ relating to a song school in York two years after the founding of the Dunwich school shows that, as might be expected, there was also a song school at Canterbury. " When peace was restored and the number of the faithful in- creased, James the Deacon taught many people Church chanting, in which he was highly skilled, after the fashion of Rome or Canterbury." From this it is evident that the conjunction of song school and grammar school in the great churches, which is a constant feature of medieval education, had been made in Canterbury, perhaps for the first time, at the beginning of the Seventh Century. The same forces which were at work in the creation of the English schools were probably active elsewhere about the same time. That much is implied in the reference to the schools which Sigebert admired in Gaul. But in most cases the scanty informa- tion available about the course of events during this period makes it impossible to trace with any exactness the way in which * A. F. Leach, The Schools of Medieval England, p. 3. t History, ii, 20.